A federal judge has blocked the Biden administration's abortion guidance in Texas.
Demonstrators march and gather near the Texas state Capitol in Austin following the Supreme Court's decision to overturn Roe v. Wade on June 24, 2022. Credit: Eric Gay / AP

LUBBOCK, Texas — A federal judge in Texas temporarily blocked the federal government from enforcing a legal interpretation that would require hospitals in the state to provide abortion services if the life of the mother is at risk.

Texas sued Department of Health and Human Services and Secretary Xavier Becerra last month, arguing that the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, a federal law commonly referred to as EMTALA, doesn’t require doctors to provide abortions if doing so would violate a state law.

In a ruling Tuesday, U.S. District Judge James Wesley Hendrix temporarily blocked the government from enforcing the guidance, finding that EMTALA “is silent as to abortion.”

“Since the statute is silent on the question, the Guidance cannot answer how doctors should weigh risks to both a mother and her unborn child,” the judge’s order said. “Nor can it, in doing so, create a conflict with state law where one does not exist. The Guidance was thus unauthorized.”

The Department of Health and Human Services issued the guidance in July, weeks after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that abortion is not a constitutional right.

The agency cited EMTALA requirements on medical facilities to determine whether a person seeking treatment might be in labor or whether they face an emergency health situation — or one that could develop into an emergency — and to provide stabilizing treatment.

In Texas, a ban on abortion at all points of a pregnancy is scheduled to take effect Thursday. It has narrow exceptions for saving the life of the unborn child or woman, preventing a serious health condition from being aggravated or caused by the pregnancy, or removing an ectopic pregnancy.

Texas clinics have already stopped offering nearly all types of abortion because of uncertainty over whether the state’s 1925 ban can be enforced. The state also has a ban on abortions after embryonic cardiac activity can be detected, which is generally about six weeks into a pregnancy and often before a woman realizes she’s pregnant.

In his ruling, Hendrix said the Department of Health and Human Services’ guidance went beyond the bounds of EMTALA by allowing some abortions before they threaten the life of a pregnant person.

“The Guidance itself cites an ‘incomplete medical abortion’ as a potential emergency medical condition that may require abortion,” Hendrix noted. “Since the Guidance permits a physician to immediately complete a medical abortion — regardless of whether the unborn child is still alive and before it presents a threat to the life of the mother — it goes beyond Texas’s law.”

Even in cases where the pregnancy does threaten the life of the mother, Texas law generally requires physicians to choose procedures that maximize the chances that the fetus will survive, the judge wrote.

“The Guidance gives Texas hospitals and physicians license — much more, requires them — to violate Texas abortion laws if their medical judgment says an abortion is required to stabilize the patient in a situation prohibited by Texas law,” Hendrix said.