NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg presents the annual report for 2018 Thursday during a media conference at NATO headquarters in Brussels. Credit: Geert Vanden Wijngaert | AP

BRUSSELS — NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg said Thursday that alliance members increased defense spending in 2018 for the fourth year in a row, highlighting a slow turnaround amid fury from the White House that allies are overly reliant on U.S. military power.

The modest increases were unlikely to shift President Donald Trump’s criticism that Europe and Canada are not doing enough in their own defense. Just seven of NATO’s 29 members met their spending pledges in 2018. Germany, one of Trump’s favorite punching bags, did not budge its figures. The U.S. military continued to be the juggernaut of the alliance, comprising 69 percent of overall defense spending even though the U.S. economy forms less than half of the club’s economic might.

Still, Stoltenberg sought to shine a positive light on 2018’s results, highlighting the spending increases. Latvia, Lithuania and Poland all joined Trump’s gold-star spending club. Romania is expected to do so this year.

“At a time when some are questioning the strength of the trans-Atlantic bond, we are actually doing more together in more ways and in more places than ever before,” Stoltenberg said.

Trump has hammered NATO allies for their lagging spending, recently raising in private conversations an idea to charge countries for the cost of U.S. troops on their soil, plus 50 percent. His “cost plus 50” plan could prove explosive if formally proposed, since lawmakers around the world would be forced to have difficult discussions about whether to pay to host Americans. Voters in some countries with the biggest U.S. presence — notably Germany — may prefer to kick out the bases rather than spend the money.

Stoltenberg said that there had been no such discussion in NATO. But he noted that U.S. troops were stationed in Europe not only to defend Europeans but also to help project U.S. military power onto Africa and the Middle East.

“The U.S. presence in Europe is important for NATO, but it is also important for the United States,” he said. “It is part of our shared security, of our collective defense.”

Even if the U.S. president appears to harbor deep doubts about the value of the alliance, his own Cabinet officials and U.S. lawmakers have tried to reassure allies that NATO retains bipartisan support in Washington. Earlier this week, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-California, and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Kentucky, issued a rare invitation to Stoltenberg to address a joint session of Congress when he is Washington next month to celebrate NATO’s 70th anniversary.

The birthday party will be attended by foreign ministers, not leaders — a choice officials on both sides opted for to avoid giving Trump new opportunities to throw grenades. NATO leaders will meet instead in London in December.

Spending by non-U.S. NATO members started to rise in 2014, before Trump’s denunciations of the alliance sent European officials grabbing for their blood pressure pills. Russia’s annexation of Ukraine’s Crimean Peninsula shook many European nations out of years of post-Cold War complacency. President Barack Obama also criticized allies for low spending, although not with the same edge as his successor.

But for all the focus on the bottom line, the overall non-U.S. spending has increased since 2014 only by $14.6 billion a year, or about 5 percent. Setting aside the United States, NATO members spent about 1.48 percent of their annual economic output on defense in 2018, far short of the 2 percent target they said in 2014 they would try to meet within a decade. Only 16 countries have come up with plans to get there in time, despite the U.S. demands. Overall, spending levels rose only modestly in 2018.

And Germany — Europe’s richest country — did little to tamp down Trump criticisms. Although it increased its spending by 3.6 percent in 2018, its economy grew at the same time, so its overall spending remained stuck at 1.23 percent of annual economic output.

Stoltenberg has forged a friendly relationship with Trump despite the rocky conditions, carefully framing the numbers to massage Oval Office egos. The NATO secretary general now touts the extra money spent since 2016, ignoring the increases prior to Trump, a shift that his advisers say is all about making the U.S. president happy.

When the two leaders met at a NATO summit in July, Stoltenberg boasted about the recent increases.

“Why was that last year?” Trump asked.

“Because of your leadership, because of your carried message,” Stoltenberg replied.

Trump joked that reporters “won’t write that, but that’s OK.”